Solving Problems With Only Zaawil Furoodh Heirs Inheriting

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Here are the answers to the example problems given at the end of the previous post.

(A) Base Number ＝ 24
(B) Base Number ＝ 10
(C) Base Number ＝ 24
(D) Base Number ＝ 60
(E) Base Number ＝ 210
(F) Base Number ＝ 2856

If you’ve gotten an answer wrong, try to figure out why. If you don’t understand how a particular answer was reached, please express your questions/confusions in the comments section below, insha’Allah.

Lets apply what we learned in the previous post to solving problems with exclusively zaawil furoodh heirs inheriting. We’ll take you through this first example step-by-step.

Example 1: A man dies leaving behind

• Mother
• Father
• 2 Daughters
• 3 Granddaughters
• 2 Haqeeqi sisters
• 1 Haqeeqi nephew
• 2 Maternal aunts

We follow the procedure outline in a previous post. We’ll remind you what that was:

1. Make a list of all relatives (already provided above).
2. Automatically exclude all non-heirs (if any).
3. Apply the rules of exclusion (hujub hirmaan) to see who is excluded and who actually inherits.
4. Solve using the chart.

We first omit all non-heirs. The maternal aunts are non-heirs, so they are automatically deprived.

Now lets apply the rules of total exclusion to see who will actually end up inheriting. By now its assumed that you know the rules of exclusion (both total and partial) thoroughly, so we will no longer be giving the rule number or explaining who a particular relative was excluded by, unless we feel an explanation is absolutely necessary.

The 3 granddaughters, 2 haqeeqi sisters, and nephew are all excluded. So our remaining heirs are only:

• Mother
• Father
• 2 Daughters

As you should already know, these are all members of zaawil furoodh, so they all have a fixed share allocated to them.

Mother gets 1/6; Father gets 1/6; the 2 Daughters share 2/3 equally amongst themselves.

So far, our chart looks like this:

Notice that we put the 2 daughters in the same category (i.e. same box in the “heirs’ row), as opposed to giving each daughter her own box. Multiple heirs of the same kind are a single category, and hence share a box.

We don’t know the base number, and without the base number we can’t figure out the portions given to each heir. So the next step is to find the base number.

The denominators in this case are: 6, 6 and 3.

Remember, when finding the base number of three numbers, we first find the base number of any two numbers, and use the result to find the base number of that and the final number. The resulting number will be the base number of all three numbers. You can continue this process for an infinitely long list of numbers.

Well, 6 and 6 are tamathul, so there base number is 6. Now we pair this number with the remaining number, which is 3.
6 and 3 are tadakhul, one is a multiple of the other. When two numbers are tadakhul, there base number is the higher number. So the base number here is 6.

Now, that we’ve gotten the base number lets fill it in the chart:

The only thing left to fill in is the portions given to each heir. How do we figure out the portions? Simple. Just multiply the base number by the share to get the corresponding heirs’ portions.

The mother gets 6(1/6) ＝ 1 portion
The father gets 6(1/6) ＝ 1 portion
The 2 daughters get 6(2/3) ＝ 4 portions

Now our complete chart looks like this:

Take notice that the 2 daughters together share 4 portions equally, but in our final answer we need to state how much each individual heir gets. In other words, the initial answer you get is the number of portions given to each category, but we need to know the number of portions given to each individual heir in each category. In this case, an entire category (the 2 daughters) receives 4 portions. To figure out the number of portions given to each heir of the category, just divide the number of portions given to that category by the number of heads in that category. Since there are 2 daughters, this means there are 2 heads. Dividing 4 by 2, we get an answer of 2. We conclude that each head (i.e. each daughter) gets 2 portions.

In the case of the mother and father, they are the only one’s in their respective category, so they each get the 1 portion assigned to them. No need to do any division here.

Final Answer: The estate will be divided into 6 equal portions:

The Mother gets 1 portion.
The Father gets 1 portion.
Each Daughter gets 2 portions.

At this point, we’d like to make it clear that in Islamic inheritance, the final answer – the number of portions given to each individual heir – must be in whole numbers. It is not acceptable to say that a certain heir will get 1/2 a portion, or 0.33 portions, or 5.8 portions. The number of portions given to each heir must be a whole number. Now a question may come to the mind of certain readers. What if the number of daughters in the above problem had been 3? This means that we would have to divide 4 (number of portions given to entire category) by 3 (number of heads in that category) which would give us an answer of 1.33…. (with the 3’s repeating infinitely). This is unacceptable in Islamic inheritance. The way to fix this would be to simply adjust the base number so the resulting portions come out as whole numbers. How exactly that works will be explained in later posts insha’Allah.

For now, lets do two more examples of exclusively zaawil furoodh heirs inheriting. Example 1, being the first example, was explained on a step-by-step basis. We’ll go through the following two examples at a much quicker pace. The readers are encouraged to try out the examples on their own first, then compare their results with the given answers.

Example 2: A woman dies leaving behind

• Husband
• 2 Akhyaafi paternal uncles
• 1 Haqeeqi sister
• 3 Haqeeqi nieces (daughters of haqeeqi brother)
• 2 Haqeeqi nephews (sons of haqeeqi sister)

The above is the list of all present relatives. The actual eligible heirs are the following:

• Husband
• 1 Haqeeqi sister

Everyone else is a non-heir. The 2 haqeeqi nephews are sons of a sister, and all children of all sisters are non-heirs. The 3 haqeeqi nieces are also non-heirs. Remember, only the sons of haqeeqi/allaati brothers are heirs. All other nephews/nieces are non-heirs.

Both the husband and haqeeqi sister are zaawil furoodh and will inherit. There are no rules of exclusion to be applied in this case.

The Husband gets 1/2; The haqeeqi sister gets 1/2.

Base number ＝ 2

Final Answer: The estate will be divided into 2 equal portions:

The Husband gets 1 portion.
The Haqeeqi sister gets 1 portion.

Example 3: A woman dies leaving behind

• Father
• Maternal grandfather
• Paternal grandfather
• Paternal grandmother
• Maternal grandmother
• 1 Daughter
• 1 Granddaughter
• 3 Haqeeqi nephews
• 2 Haqeeqi paternal uncles

Just a reminder from a previous post (see “Important Note” in Rules of Hujub Hirmaan), when haqeeqi/allaati nephews are mentioned we automatically assume it means the sons of the haqeeqi/allaati brothers. Only when otherwise specified (like in the previous example) is this assumption overridden. Same rule applies to grandchildren.

Maternal grandfather is a non-heir. Applying the rules of hujub hirmaan, we find that the paternal grandparents, haqeeqi nephews, and the haqeeqi paternal uncles are all excluded.

This leaves us with the following people who will be inheriting:

• Father
• Maternal grandmother
• 1 Daughter
• 1 Granddaughter

Fathers share is 1/6; Maternal grandmothers share is 1/6; The daughters share is 1/2; The granddaughters share is 1/6

The denominators are 6, 6, 2 and 6.

6 and 6 are tamathul, resulting in 6.
6 and 2 are tadakhul, resulting in 6.
6 and the final 6 are tamathul, giving us a base number of 6.

Base number ＝ 6

Final Answer: The estate will be divided into 6 equal portions:

The Father gets 1 portion.
The Maternal grandmother gets 1 portion.
The Daughter gets 3 portions.
The Granddaughter gets 1 portion.

It is hoped that these three examples gave you a solid understanding of how to deal with inheritance problems when only zaawil furoodh members are inheriting. If there is something you do not understand, you can always leave your questions and express any confusions in the comments section insha’Allah. In the next post, insha’Allah, we will be dealing with inheritance problems when only `asabaat are inheriting.

Before ending, lets leave you with a final example problem, the answer to which will be given in the next post, insha’Allah.

A man dies leaving behind:

• 2 Paternal aunts
• 1 Haqeeqi sister
• 1 Allaati sister
• 2 Akhyaafi brothers
• 3 Haqeeqi nieces

How will the estate be divided and distributed?