Month: September 2014

Solving Problems Using the Principle of `Awl

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In this post, insha’Allah, we will learn how to apply `awl by solving example problems.

It should be understood that `awl can only be applied when the sum of the shares is greater than 1. When the sum of the shares is greater than 1, this will result in the sum of the portions being greater than the base number.

The application of `awl is actually very simple: As discussed in the previous post, after calculating the base number and the resulting portions we find that the sum of the portions is actually greater than the base number. To apply `awl, all we have to do is make this sum our new base number, while keeping the portions the same. This will result in reducing the shares of the categories proportionally.

Lets demonstrate with a few examples, insha’Allah.

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Introduction to `Awl

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Consider the following scenario:

A man dies leaving behind:

  • 1 Wife
  • Mother
  • Father
  • 2 Daughters

All of them inherit, no one is excluded. Upon adding up the shares, we find something seemingly strange. Take a look:

1/8 + 1/6 + 1/6 + 2/3 = 1.1259/8

The shares add up to greater than 1. Has there been a mistake? No, not at all. In fact, there are numerous scenarios in which the shares of the heirs add up to greater than 1. Consequently, in these types of problems, when we calculate the base number and the portions given to each heir, we find that the sum of all portions is actually greater than the base number. In such scenarios, we apply the principle of `awl.

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Summary of All Rules for Adjusting the Base Number

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Below is the answer to the problem presented at the end of the previous post:

The estate will be divided into 720 equal portions:

Each Wife receives 45 portions.
Each Daughter receives 96 portions.
Each Haqeeqi brother receives 50 portions.

The granddaughters are deprived.

Any questions/confusions concerning the above should be posted in the comments section, insha’Allah.


We’ve decided to gather and summarize all the rules for adjusting the base number in one post, for your convenience.

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Adjusting the Base Number When Heirs of Three or More Categories Cannot Share Portions Evenly

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The following is the answer to the problem which was presented at the end of the previous post:

The estate will be divided into 16 equal portions:

Each Wife gets 1 portion.
Each Allaati brother gets 4 portions.
Each Allaati sister gets 2 portions.

Any questions readers may have about the answer and how it was reached should be posted in the comments section, insha’Allah.


So far we’ve learned how to deal with scenarios in which heirs of a single category and heirs of two categories cannot share their portions evenly, i.e. in whole numbers. In this post we will learn how to deal with scenarios in which heirs of three or more categories cannot share their portions evenly. We say ‘three or more’ because what you’ll learn in this post applies also to four categories, and five, and six, and so on. However, three categories is about as deep as it gets. You most likely will never have to deal with a scenario in which more than three categories need to be resolved.

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